Below are listed some of the best books and reports to help you with all your research needs, as well as information about NGOs and other groups working in the following areas. Please let us know if there are any other books or resources that should be included here by e-mailing info@worldcarfree.net

See also our list of magazines and other publications.


Bibliography on Non-Motorised Transport

References AASHTO. 1999. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (Washington DC; 888-227-4860; www.aashto.org); available online at www.bikefed.org.

Clark, J.M., and B.J. Hutton. 1991. The Appraisal of Community Severance, Transport Research Laboratory (Crowthorne, www.trl.co.uk), Report #135.

Clarke, A, and L. Tracy. 1995. Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis. UNC Highway Safety Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-94-062 (available from www.bicyclinginfo.org).

de Dios Ortuzar, Juan, Andres Iacobelli, and Claudio Valeze. July 2000. "Estimating demand for a cycle-way network." Transportation Research A, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 353-373.

Danish Road Directorate. 1992. Evaluation of Highway Investment Projects (undersogelse af storre hovedlandeveejsarbejder. Metode for effektberegninger og okonomisk vurdering), Danish Road Directorate (Copenhagen).

Dixon, Linda. 1996. "Bicycle and Pedestrian Level-of-Service Performance Measures and Standards for Congestion Management Systems." Transportation Research Record 1538, pp. 1-9.

Eash, Ronald. 1999. "Destination and Mode Choice Models for Non-Motorized Travel," Transportation Research Record 1674, 1999, pp. 1-8.

Harkey, David L., Donald W. Reinfurt, and Alex Sorton. 1998. The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept. Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-98-095. IHT. 1998.

Guidelines on Cycle Audit and Cycle Review. Institution of Highway and Transportation (U.K.; www.iht.org). ITE. 1998.

Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, A Recommended Practice, Institute of Transportation Engineers (202-554-8050; www.ite.org).

Katz, Rod. 1995. "Modeling Bicycle Demand as a Mainstream Transportation Planning Function," Transportation Research Record 1502, pp. 22-28.

Landis, Bruce. Feb. 1996. "Bicycle System Performance Measure," ITE Journal, pp. 18-26.

Landis, Bruce, Russell Ottenberg, and Venkat Vattikuti. 1999. The Roadside Pedestrian Environment: Toward A Comprehensive Level of Service, Paper 990570, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/homepage.nsf).

Litman, et al. 2000. Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning; Guide to Best Practices. VTPI (Victoria, www.vtpi.org).

McLean, A.J., et al. .1997. "Vehicle Travel Speeds and the Incidence of Fatal Pedestrian Collisions," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 667-674.

Moudon, Anne Vernez, Paul Hess, Mary Catherine Snyder, and Kiril Stanilov. 1997. Effects of Site Design on Pedestrian Travel in Mixed-use, Medium-Density Environments. Washington State Transportation Center (www.wsdot.wa.gov), Washington State Department of Transportation.

Nelson, Arthur and Allen, David. 1997. "If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them; Cross-Sectional Analysis of Commuters and Bicycle Facilities," Transportation Research Record 1578, pp. 79-83. NHI. 1996.

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Accommodation; Participants Handbook, National Highway Institute Course No. 38061, National Traffic Safety Administration, Federal Highway Administration (available from www.bicycleinfo.org).

Osberg, J. Scott, Stephanie Faul, Joshua Poole, and John McHenry. 2000. Skating: An Emerging Mode of Transportation. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting.

PBQD. December 1993. The Pedestrian Environment, 1000 Friends of Oregon (Portland; www.friends.org).

Porter, Christopher, John Suhrbier, and William Schwartz. 1999. "Forecasting Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel: State of the Practice and Research Needs," Transportation Research Record 1674, pp. 94-100.

Portland Office of Transportation. 1998. Portland Pedestrian Design Guide City of Portland (www.trans.ci.portland.or.us/Sidewalks_and_Pedestrians.html).

PT. May 2000. "How Far Should Patrons Have to Walk After They Park?" Parking Today. pp. 34-36.

Reyier, J. 1986. Project Analysis, 15E. Calculation Guide, Investment in Roads and Streets, Swedish National Road Administration, Section for Road Planning (www.vv.se). Available at www.vtpi.org.

Rietveld, P. January 2000. "Nonmotorized Modes in Transport Systems: A Multimodal Chain Perspective for The Netherlands." Transportation Research D, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 31-36.

Rintoul, Donald. 1995. Social Cost of Transverse Barrier Effects, Planning Services Branch, B.C. Ministry of Transportation and Highways (Victoria; www.th.gov.bc.ca/bchighways).

Rossi, Thomas F. 2000. Modeling Non-Motorized Travel. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper 00-0492.

Russell, John and Julian Hine. January 1996. "Impact of Traffic on Pedestrian Behaviour; Measuring the Traffic Barrier," Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 16-19.

Schwartz, W.L., C.D. Porter, G.C. Payne, J.H. Suhrbier, P.C. Moe, and W.L. Wilkinson III. 1999. Guidebook on Methods to Estimate NonMotorized Travel: Overview of Methods. Prepared by the Turner-Fairbanks Highway Research Center for Federal Highway Administration, Publication No. FHWA-RD-98-166 (available at www.tfhrc.gov).

Sorton, Alex and Thomas Walsh. 1995. "Bicycle Stress Level as a Tool to Evaluate Urban and Suburban Bicycle Computability," Transportation Research Record 1438, TRB, (www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/homepage.nsf), pp. 17-24.

TRB. 2000. Highway Capacity Manual. Transportation Research Board.

University of North Carolina. 1994. A Compendium of Available Bicycle and Pedestrian Trip Generation Data in the United States, Supplement to the National Bicycling and Walking Study, FHWA, USDOT (available through www.bikefed.org).


Resources for Evaluating Non-Motorized Transportation Conditions

Cycling Network Program Operational Manual, Ministry of Transportation and Highways, 1996.

Ronald Eash, Destination and Mode Choice Models for Non-Motorized Travel, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (Washington DC; www.nas.edu/trb), 1999.

Bruce Epperson, "Evaluating Suitability of Roadways for Bicycle Use: Toward a Cycling Level-of-Service Standard," Transportation Research Record 1438, TRB, (www.nas.edu/trb), 1995, pp. 9-16.

Yael M. Levitte, Bicycle Demand Analysis - A Toronto Case Study, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (Washington DC; www.nas.edu/trb), 1999.

William Moritz, Bicycle Facilities and Use, Washington State Department of Transportation, (Olympia; http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ta/t2/t2pubs.htm), 1995.

Stephen O'Neill and Paul Smith, Roadway Improvements to Better Accommodate Bicycles, Massachusetts Statewide Bicycle Transportation Plan, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (Washington DC; www.nas.edu/trb), 1998.

PBQD, The Pedestrian Environment, 1000 Friends of Oregon (Portland; www.teleport.com/~friends/) 1993.

Christopher Porter, John Suhrbier and William Schwartz, Forecasting Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel: State of the Practice and Research Needs, TRB Annual Meeting (www.nas.edu/trb), 1999.

Project for Public Spaces, Effects of Environmental Design on the Amount and Type of Bicycling and Walking, National Bicycling and Walking Study No. 20, FHWA, USDOT (available through www.bikefed.org), 1993.

Alex Sorton and Thomas Walsh, "Bicycle Stress Level as a Tool to Evaluate Urban and Suburban Bicycle Computability," Transportation Research Record 1438, TRB, (Washington DC; www.nas.edu/trb), 1995, pp. 17-24.

University of North Carolina, A Compendium of Available Bicycle and Pedestrian Trip Generation Data in the United States, Supplement to the National Bicycling and Walking Study, FHWA, USDOT (available through www.bikefed.org), 1994.

Ellen Vanderslice, Portland Pedestrian Design Guide, Pedestrian Transportation Program, City of Portland (pedprogram@syseng.ci.portland.or.us), 1998.

Barry Wellar, Walking Security Index; Final Report, Geography Department, University of Ottawa ( wellarb@uottawa.ca), 1998. This index evaluates signalized intersection for pedestrian safety, comfort and convenience.


Resources for Planning Non-Motorized Trails

American Trails fosters communication among trail users.

AASHTO, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials 1991. An update of this publication is expected in the summer of 1999.

Cycling Network Program Operational Manual, Ministry of Transportation and Highways, 1996.

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Part IX: "Traffic Controls for Bicycle Facilities" recommends standards for signing and marking both on-road and off-road bicycle facilities. Available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, 202-783-3238. FAX 202-512-2250.

National Bicycle and Walking Study (24 volumes), FHWA, (Washington DC; www.bikefed.org), 1991-95.

Northwestern University Traffic Institute (Evanston, Illinois; 800-323-4011; www.nwu.edu/traffic/) offers professional development workshops on bicycle planning and facility design, and other related subjects.

Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning (www.odot.state.or.us/techserv/bikewalk/obpplan.htm) is an example of non-motorized planning at its best.

Suzan Anderson Pinsof and Terri Musser, Bicycle Facility Planning, Planners Advisory Service, American Planning Association (Chicago; 312-786-6344), 1995.

Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines, Transportation Association of Canada (Ottawa; 613-736-1350; www.tac-atc.ca/), 1999.

Rails-To-Trails Conservancy (www.railtrails.org) is an organization dedicated to helping communities develop public trails. It provides a variety of information and resources.


Transit and Bicycle Integration Resources

BC Transit (1996a) Bike Rider Evaluation of Bike Rack Pilot Project, Marketing and Creative Services Division, Service Planning Department, Vancouver BC.

Daphne Hope, Community Cycling Manual: A Planning and Design Guide, Canadian Institute of Planners, (Ottawa; www.cip-icu.ca), 1990.

OC Transport (1992) Bike and Ride Study: Final Report prepared by Transport Concepts, Ottawa.

Transit Cooperative Research Program (1994) TCRP Synthesis 4, Integration of Bicycles and Transit, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Michael Replogle and Harriet Purcells, Linking Bicycle/Pedestrian Facilities with Transit, National Bicycle and Walking Study, Case Study No. 9, FHWA, (Washington DC; www.bikefed.org), 1992.

Toronto Transit Commission (1994) TTC Bike and Ride Study Final Report, Toronto, Ontario.


Bicycle Encouragement and Transportation Demand Management Resources

Association for Commuter Transportation (Washington DC; 202-393-3497, fax: 202-347-8847; http://tmi.cob.fsu.edu/act/act.htm) is a non-profit organization supporting TDM programs.

BEST - Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (Vancouver; 604-669-2860; www.sustainability.com/best) is a non-profit organization working to promote and improve alternatives to the private automobile. It has extensive Transportation Demand Management (TDM) resources.

Center for Urban Transportation Research, USF (Tampa; http://cutr.eng.usf.edu/). Provides TDM materials and classes. Publishes TMA Clearinghouse Quarterly.

Commuter Choice Program (www.epa.gov/oms/traq) provides information, materials and incentives for developing employee commute trip reduction programs.

Environment Canada "Green Lane" program (www.ec.gc.ca/emission/5-1e.html) promotes TDM and other strategies for reducing transportation environmental impacts.

Go For Green, The Active Living & Environment Program (www.goforgree.ca) encourages outdoor physical activity that protects the environment. It provides many resources to promote non-motorized transportation.

The Institute of Transportation Engineers (Washington DC; www.ite.org) has extensive technical resources on TDM, transportation planning and traffic calming.

Transportation Association of Canada (Ottawa; www.tac-atc.ca) provides a variety of resources related to transportation planning and TDM.

Washington Department of Transportation, TDM Resource Center (Seattle; 206-464-6145; fax: 206-464-6084; www.wsdot.wa.gov) and Northwest Technology Transfer Center (Olympia; www.wsdot.wa.gov/TA/T2/publications.html) offer a variety of resources for TDM planning.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.islandnet.com/~litman) provides resources for planning and evaluating TDM, bicycling and walking programs.


Traffic Management and Traffic Calming Resources

Stephen Burrington & Veronika Thiebach, Take Back Your Streets; How to Protect Communities from Asphalt and Traffic, Conservation Law Foundation (Boston; www.clf.org), 1995.

Congress for the New Urbanism's Narrow Streets database (www.sonic.net/abcaia/narrow.htm) provides information on narrower street standards adopted in various communities.

David Engwicht Communications (www.slonet.org/~canderso/dec.html) provides workshops and educational materials for "street reclaiming" by neighborhood residents.

Institute of Transportation Engineers (Washington DC; www.ite.org) publishes a number of useful traffic calming and pedestrian planning documents. Their book Residential Street Design and Traffic Control, provides detailed guidelines for neighborhood traffic management.

The Local Government Commission (www.lgc.org/clc/pubinfo/) provides a variety of useful material including "Street Design Guidelines for Healthy Neighborhoods" by Dan Burden.

The city of Portland (www.trans.ci.portland.or.us/Traffic_Management/trafficcalming/) provides excellent information and materials on traffic calming and pedestrian planning.

City of Seattle (www.ci.seattle.wa.us/npo/tblis.htm) has an outstanding neighborhood planning process that includes traffic calming resources.

Transportation Association of Canada (Ottawa; 613-736-1350; www.tac-atc.ca/) publishes the Canadian Guide to Neighborhood Traffic Calming and sponsors traffic calming workshops.


Livable Community Planning Resources

The American Planning Association (www.planning.org) is the professional society for planners which sponsors a "Growing Smart" initiative and provides many useful planning materials.

Back to the Future: Re-Designing Our Landscapes with Form, Place & Density, Urban Development Institute Pacific Region (Vancouver), 1993.

Center for Livable Communities (www.lgc.org/clc/) helps local governments and community leaders be proactive in their land use and transportation planning.

Congress for New Urbanism (www.cnu.org) is a movement to develop urban communities built to a human scale.

The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (www.iclei.org) is the "international environmental agency for local governments "which provides tool to help communities become healthier and more environmentally responsible."

The National Trust for Historic Preservation (www.nationaltrust.org) focuses on preserving downtown areas and historic buildings.

Planners Web (www.webcom.com/pcj), maintained by Planning Commissioners Journal, includes a sprawl resources guide, a primer for citizen planners, a tour of 12 key planning related sites, and a section on conservation design for subdivisions.

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. Transit-Friendly Streets: Design and Traffic Management Strategies to Support Livable Communities, TCRP Report 33, Transportation Research Board (Washington DC; www.nas.edu/trb), 1998.

Rys Roth, Redevelopment for Livable Communities, WSDOT (Olympia; http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ta/t2/t2pubs.htm), 1995.

The Smart Growth Network (www.smartgrowth.org) includes planners, govt. officials, lenders, community developers, architects, environmentalists and activists.

Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse (www.sprawlwatch.org) provides information, advice & referrals on sprawl & smart growth.

Sustainable Communities Network (www.sustainable.org) provides tools to help citizens work together to define a community's course and make it more sustainable.

Transportation for Livable Communities (www.tlcnetwork.org) is a resource for people working to create more livable communities by improving transportation.

World Health Organization Healthy Cities Project (www.who.dk/london99/) provides information on international efforts to create healthy cities.


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 This page was last updated 11 September 2009